Linux System Admin Guide- What is Linux Operating System and how it works
Linux System Admin Guide- What are Directory Tree and Filesystem Hierarchy in Linux
Linux System Admin Guide- Introduction to Linux File Systems for System Admins
Linux System Admin Guide- Overview of Linux Virtual Memory and Disk Buffer Cache
Linux System Admin Guide- Best Practices for Monitoring Linux Systems
Linux System Admin Guide- Best Practices for Performing Linux Boots and Shutdowns
Linux System Admin Guide- Best Practices for Making and Managing Backup Operations
How Linux Operating System Memory Management works
Comprehensive Review of Linux Kernel Operating System Processes
Comprehensive Review of Linux File System Architecture and Management
What are mechanisms behind Linux Kernel task management
How Linux Kernel Sources and Functions work
Comprehensive look at how Linux Data Structures work
Unlike /sbin, the bin directory contains several useful commands that are of use to both the system administrator as well as non-privileged users. It usually contains the shells like bash, csh, etc.... and commonly used commands like cp, mv, rm, cat, ls. For this reason and in contrast to /usr/bin, the binaries in this directory are considered to be essential. The reason for this is that it contains essential system programs that must be available even if only the partition containing / is mounted. This situation may arise should you need to repair other partitions but have no access to shared directories (ie. you are in single user mode and hence have no network access). It also contains programs which boot scripts may depend on.
Compliance to the FSSTND means that there are no subdirectories in /bin and that the following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are located there.
cat Utility to concatenate files to standard output chgrp Utility to change file group ownership chmod Utility to change file access permissions chown Utility to change file owner and group cp Utility to copy files and directories date Utility to print or set the system data and time dd Utility to convert and copy a file df Utility to report filesystem disk space usage dmesg Utility to print or control the kernel message buffer echo Utility to display a line of text false Utility to do nothing, unsuccessfully hostname Utility to show or set the system's host name kill Utility to send signals to processes ln Utility to make links between files login Utility to begin a session on the system ls Utility to list directory contents mkdir Utility to make directories mknod Utility to make block or character special files more Utility to page through text mount Utility to mount a filesystem mv Utility to move/rename files ps Utility to report process status pwd Utility to print name of current working directory rm Utility to remove files or directories rmdir Utility to remove empty directories sed The `sed' stream editor sh The Bourne command shell stty Utility to change and print terminal line settings su Utility to change user ID sync Utility to flush filesystem buffers true Utility to do nothing, successfully umount Utility to unmount file systems uname Utility to print system information If /bin/sh is not a true Bourne shell, it must be a hard or symbolic link to the real shell command. The rationale behind this is because sh and bash mightn't necessarily behave in the same manner. The use of a symbolic link also allows users to easily see that /bin/sh is not a true Bourne shell. The [ and test commands must be placed together in either /bin or /usr/bin. The requirement for the [ and test commands to be included as binaries (even if implemented internally by the shell) is shared with the POSIX.2 standard. The following programs, or symbolic links to programs, must be in /bin if the corresponding subsystem is installed: csh The C shell (optional) ed The `ed' editor (optional) tar The tar archiving utility (optional) cpio The cpio archiving utility (optional) gzip The GNU compression utility (optional) gunzip The GNU uncompression utility (optional) zcat The GNU uncompression utility (optional) netstat The network statistics utility (optional) ping The ICMP network test utility (optional) If the gunzip and zcat programs exist, they must be symbolic or hard links to gzip. /bin/csh may be a symbolic link to /bin/tcsh or /usr/bin/tcsh. The tar, gzip and cpio commands have been added to make restoration of a system possible (provided that / is intact). Conversely, if no restoration from the root partition is ever expected, then these binaries might be omitted (e.g., a ROM chip root, mounting /usr through NFS). If restoration of a system is planned through the network, then ftp or tftp (along with everything necessary to get an ftp connection) must be available on the root partition.
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