Hands-on Guide for Linux /opt file and folders

decorative line

Learn how Linux file system works!

Linux /opt and its architecture!

Guide outline

1.1. Overview
1.2. The Root Directory
1.3. /bin
1.4. /boot
1.5. /dev
1.6. /etc
1.7. /home
1.8. /initrd
1.9. /lib
1.10. /lost+found
1.11. /media
1.12. /mnt
1.13. /opt
1.14. /proc
1.15. /root
1.16. /sbin
1.17. /usr
1.18. /var
1.19. /srv
1.20. /tm
2. Glossary

Additional Linux Resources

Here is a list of resources for learning Linux:

Resources for System Administrators

Linux System Admin Guide- What is Linux Operating System and how it works
Linux System Admin Guide- What are Directory Tree and Filesystem Hierarchy in Linux
Linux System Admin Guide- Introduction to Linux File Systems for System Admins
Linux System Admin Guide- Overview of Linux Virtual Memory and Disk Buffer Cache
Linux System Admin Guide- Best Practices for Monitoring Linux Systems
Linux System Admin Guide- Best Practices for Performing Linux Boots and Shutdowns
Linux System Admin Guide- Best Practices for Making and Managing Backup Operations

Resources for Linux Kernel Programmers

How Linux Operating System Memory Management works
Comprehensive Review of Linux Kernel Operating System Processes
Comprehensive Review of Linux File System Architecture and Management
What are mechanisms behind Linux Kernel task management
How Linux Kernel Sources and Functions work
Comprehensive look at how Linux Data Structures work

Hands-on Linux classes

Introduction to Linux and Shell programming
Introduction to Linux System Administration

Linux Operating System Distributions

Comprehensive list of all Linux OS distributions
Comprehensive list of all special purpose Linux distributions
Comprehensive list of all secure Linux distributions for cybersecurity professionals

1.13. /opt

This directory is reserved for all the software and add-on packages that are not part of the default installation. For example, StarOffice, Kylix, Netscape Communicator and WordPerfect packages are normally found here. To comply with the FSSTND, all third party applications should be installed in this directory. Any package to be installed here must locate its static files (ie. extra fonts, clipart, database files) must locate its static files in a separate /opt/'package' or /opt/'provider' directory tree (similar to the way in which Windows will install new software to its own directory tree C:\Windows\Progam Files\"Program Name"), where 'package' is a name that describes the software package and 'provider' is the provider's LANANA registered name.

Although most distributions neglect to create the directories /opt/bin, /opt/doc, /opt/include, /opt/info, /opt/lib, and /opt/man they are reserved for local system administrator use. Packages may provide "front-end" files intended to be placed in (by linking or copying) these reserved directories by the system administrator, but must function normally in the absence of these reserved directories. Programs to be invoked by users are located in the directory /opt/'package'/bin. If the package includes UNIX manual pages, they are located in /opt/'package'/man and the same substructure as /usr/share/man must be used. Package files that are variable must be installed in /var/opt. Host-specific configuration files are installed in /etc/opt.

Under no circumstances are other package files to exist outside the /opt, /var/opt, and /etc/opt hierarchies except for those package files that must reside in specific locations within the filesystem tree in order to function properly. For example, device lock files in /var/lock and devices in /dev. Distributions may install software in /opt, but must not modify or delete software installed by the local system administrator without the assent of the local system administrator.

The use of /opt for add-on software is a well-established practice in the UNIX community. The System V Application Binary Interface [AT&T 1990], based on the System V Interface Definition (Third Edition) and the Intel Binary Compatibility Standard v. 2 (iBCS2) provides for an /opt structure very similar to the one defined here.

Generally, all data required to support a package on a system must be present within /opt/'package', including files intended to be copied into /etc/opt/'package' and /var/opt/'package' as well as reserved directories in /opt. The minor restrictions on distributions using /opt are necessary because conflicts are possible between distribution installed and locally installed software, especially in the case of fixed pathnames found in some binary software.

The structure of the directories below /opt/'provider' is left up to the packager of the software, though it is recommended that packages are installed in /opt/'provider'/'package' and follow a similar structure to the guidelines for /opt/package. A valid reason for diverging from this structure is for support packages which may have files installed in /opt/ 'provider'/lib or /opt/'provider'/bin.

Private Custom Tutoring

decorative line

We offer private custom tutoring classes both online and in DC, MD and VA for almost all of our courses or bootcamps. Give us a call or email us to discuss your needs.

$90 Regular

$50 Limited Offer